MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Location: file:///C:/1E4BA121/8.thespecialtyarticleslatefa.htm Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Content-Type: text/html; charset="us-ascii" Your Guide to Advanced Postgraduate Study



Your Guide to Advanced Postgraduate Study


All dental students at one time will reach a po= int in there educational career, thinking "what should I choose as my specialty?". It may not be easy, so we are = here to help you out with that problem. We will discuss pro= stodontics, oral and maxillofacial surgery, and orthodontics. Special thanks to Dr. Rashed for his much appreciated contribution to this magazine

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Prosthodontics is one of the nine dental specialties recognized by the American Dental Association (ADA).


  &nb= sp;       Prosthodontics is the science and art of replacing missing natural teeth and associated structures with fixed or removable substitutes. Prosthodontists speciali= ze in the restoration of oral function by creating prostheses and restorations (i= .e. complete dentures, crowns, implant retained/supported restorations). Cosmet= ic dentistry, implants and joint problems all fall under = the field of prosthodontics.


The American College of Prosthodontists (ACP) ensures standards are maintaine= d in the field. Becoming a prosthodontist requires an additional 3-4 years of specialty training after obtaining a dental degree (D.D.S. or D.M.D.) in an ADA approved program or equivalent, which allows t= he holder to practice as a general dentist. The extra 3-4 years of residency l= eads to becoming a specialist. This amounts to an immense amount of time spent in clinical and didactic study from 3000 hours over 3 years in a British

program to 7000 hours over the same period in US accredited programs.

Training consists of rigorous preparation in he= ad and neck anatomy, materials

science, esthetics, and occlusion (bite). Due to this extensive training, prosthodontist= s are frequently called upon to treat cosmetic cases, full mouth implant reconstructions, TMD related disorders, congenital disorders, and sleep disorders by planning and fabricating various prostheses and orthotic appliances. They are the "decision makers" deciding the recommended treatment plan for the patient.


Maxillofacial prosthetics is a sub-specialty of= prosthodontics. Maxillofacial pr= osthodontists treat patients who have acquired and congenital defects of the head and neck (maxillofacial) region due to surgery, trauma, and/or birth defect. It requ= ires an additional year of training after completing an ADA approved prost= hodontic training program. Artificial eyes, ears, and maxillary obturators are commonly planned and fabricated by maxillofacial p= rosthodontists. Other less commonly employed prostheses include mouth devices used by amput= ees to aid in daily activities, tracheostomy obturators, and cranial implants.



-&nbs= p;        www.ada.org

-&nb= sp;        en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wiki



Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

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Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery is surgery to correct a wide spectrum of diseases, injuries and defects in the head, neck, face, jaws and the hard and soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region. It is a recognized internatio= nal dental specialty, which, in the European Union, requires a minimum length of formation of 5 years for a basic medical training and 4 years for a basic medical and dental training. In the U.S.A.<= /st1:country-region>, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand it is one of the 9 dental specialties recogni= zed by the American Dental Association, Royal College of Dentists of Canada, and Royal Australasian<= /st1:PlaceName> College of Dental Surgeons.


<= u>Area of Specialty

Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are trained to treat problems such as the extrac= tion of wisdom teeth, misaligned jaws, tumors and cysts of the jaw and mouth, an= d to perform dental implant surgery. They are also trained to administer anesthe= sia, and provide care in an office setting. The scope of this specialty is exten= sive and concerns the diagnosis and treatment of diseases affecting the oral (mo= uth) and maxillofacial (face and neck) regions, including the following:<= span lang=3DAR-KW style=3D'font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Tahoma;color:navy;mso-bi= di-language: AR-KW'>


  • Oral and Dentoalveolar Surgery (removal of impacted and buried teeth, cysts, etc).
  • Preprosthetic Surgery.
  • Dental implant surgery and associated bone grafting (to replace missing teeth or stabilize dentures; rehabilitati= on of patients having undergone surgery for tumors; to retain facial prostheses).
  • Orthognathic= surgery (dentofacial deformities).
  • Facial trauma surgery (facial bone fractures = and injuries).
  • Surgery of Odontogenic and non-odontogenic Tumors=
  • Reconstructive surgery=
  • Cleft lip and palate surgery<= /span>
  • Congenital craniofacial deformities
  • Facial plastic surgery (= rhinoplasty, rhytidectomy, blephar= oplasty, facial implants, etc).<= /span>
  • Temporomandibular= joint disorder (TMJD).=
  • Head and Neck Oncology


United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery is one of the 9 dental specialties recognized by the American Dental Association, Royal Col= lege of Dentists of Canada, and the Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeon= s. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery requires 4-7 years of further formal Univers= ity training after dental school (DDS,= DMD,BDent, or BDS). Four-year residency programs grant a certificate of specialty trai= ning in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Six-year residency programs grant the specialty certificate in addition to a medical degree (MD,MBBS,MBChB, etc). Specialists in this field are designated after passing board exam registerable U.S. “Board Diplomate” and warrant exclu= sive titles.

Approximately 50% of the training programs in t= he U.S., 100% of the programs in Australia and New Zealand, and 1/5 of Canad= ian training programs, are dual-degree leading to dual certification in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and medicine (MD,MBBS,MBChB, etc).=


In addition, graduates of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery training programs can pursue advanced fellowships, typically 1 - 2 years in length, training in the following areas:


  • Craniofacial/Pedi= atric Maxillofacial Surgery (cleft lip and palate repair, surgery for craniosynostoses, etc.)
  • Head and Neck Surgical Oncology (ablative surgery for cancer and microvascular reconstructive surgery) Facial Cosmetic Surgery (facelift, rhinoplasty, etc.)
  • Maxillofacial Tra= uma Surgery (soft tissue and skeletal injuries to the face and neck)


UK= and Europe<= /span>

The Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon (OMFS) is a person with a medical (MD: 6 years) and a dental degree (DDS or DMD : 5 years) or equivalent qualifications, examples = of which would be a specialist certificate in Stomatology= . This training must be a University Course authenticated by a certificate.


This specialty is defined within Europe, includ= ing the United Kingdom, under the medical Directive 2001/19/EC (Official Journal of the European Communities L 206, 31.07.2001). It requires 5 years for a basic medical training (MD) or 4 years of further formal University training after a dual qualification in Medicine (MD) and Dentistry (DDS or DMD).



-&nb= sp;        www.ada.org

-&nb= sp;        en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wiki



Step by Step from = Jabriya to USA=

<= span dir=3DLTR style=3D'font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Tahoma;color:navy'>The Road= to Orthodontics specialization


Welcome = to the second oldest recognized specialty in all Medicine and Dentistry after Gene= ral Surgery. Orthodontics is the branch of dentistry that specializes in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of dental and facial irregularities. The technical term for t= hese problems is "malocclusion," which means "bad bite". The practice of orthodontics involves the design, application and control of corrective appliances (braces) to bring teeth, lips and jaws into proper alignment and achieve facial balance. The first professional organization f= or orthodontists, the American Association of Orthodontists (AAO), was founded= in 1900. Admission to orthodontic post-graduate programs is extremely competit= ive and selective worldwide and it takes lots of organized work and effort to become an Orthodontist. We will try to highlight the important steps that y= ou need to take to join this profession. We will do that in a simple and clear= way. We will discuss the process of applying to orthodontic programs in the US only= .

The educ= ational requirements are demanding. Most of the orthodontic programs will look main= ly at three things in you application. (1) Grade Point Average (GPA) (2) Natio= nal Board Exam scores (3) Research Experience. It is your job to work on these fronts and make them as good and competitive as you can.<= /p>

<= u>Step #1 = (Dental degree and Grade Point Average)

You have to gradua= te from a dental school that is accredited by the American Dental Association (ADA). The faculty of Dentistry at Kuwait University is accredited by the = ADA. As we said e= arlier it is your work to get a competitive GPA. Those who have an average GPA in their earlier years can still have a chance if they show that their GPA is improving and getting better with time. Remember GPA is one thing but not t= he whole thing.

<= u>Step #2 = (TOEFL exam)

If you are plannin= g to study in the US, then you are required to take the TOEFL exam compulsorily. The purpose of t= he TOEFL exam is to evaluate English proficiency of students whose native lang= uage is not English. The Test of English as a Foreign Language TOEFL measures the ability of nonnative speakers of English to use and understand English as i= t is spoken, written, and heard in college and university settings. It is recommended that you start taking this exam as early as possible and keep trying until you get a good score and make sure you get what you are asked = for.

<= u>Step #3 (National Dental Board Exam)

It is recommended that you sit for the National Dental Boards Exams which is an e= xam that all American dental students from deferent dental schools take on the = same time. This two parts written examination assesses the ability to understand important information from basic biomedical and dental sciences and also the ability to apply such information in a problem-solving context. The timing = of when to sit for these exams is based on your own preference some likes to g= et done earlier when the information is fresh ,others likes to wait after graduation  to dedicate more t= ime to it. Whatever you choose make sure to get a decent score. You are considered= as an outsider and these exams are a good way for them to compare you to the American applicants. For more information on these exams please visit www.ada.org<= /a>

<= u>Step #4 (Postdoctoral Application Support Service)

Start co= llecting your scores and transcript and get all the official seals and

signatures, after that you are ready to start applying= to the programs. This Postdoctoral Application Support Service (PASS) simplifi= es the application process by providing on standardized format and relieving applicants of the need to complete multiple applications. Dental programs benefit by receiving uniform information on all applicants Most of the orthodontic programs participate in this system very few don’t, so ma= ke sure you know who is not participating and apply directly to them. For more information on this you can go to their website at www.adea.org

<= u>Step #5 (Postgraduate Dental Matching Program)

You are = also required to register with the Postgraduate Dental Matching Program. This Program (the "Match") places applicants into first year residency training positions in dentistry in the United States. For more infor= mation on how this complex system works please visit their website at www.natmatch.com/dentres


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Remember that you = need to apply at least one year before the wishing start date, so collect all the information you need (transcript, exam scores, recommendation letters, pers= onal essays, etc) before that time and check each school deadline.

If let say the orthodontic program you wish to join starts on August, 2009 then you need to apply no later than August, 2008. Most of the programs will start calling f= or interviews from September, 2008 to December, 2008 and then those who are accepted will be notified by January, 2009.

Once aga= in be organized and optimistic and if you need help please feel free to ask any Orthodontist at our school.

Good Luck


Dr.Rashed Al-Azemi

Department of developmental and Preventive Sciences

Faculty of Dentist= ry, Kuwait University

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